Afghanistan

In 2001, joint forces led by the United States invaded Afghanistan. causing the Taliban to lose power.

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But two decades have passed and the US deadline is approaching. Withdraw all troops on 11 Sept. The Taliban returned to occupy several military bases. Including villages and large cities, there are concerns that they will topple the Afghan government again.

The US-Taliban peace agreement signed in Qatar’s capital Doha in February 2020 requires the US to withdraw its troops, while the Taliban must prevent attacks on US forces. The Taliban must not allow al-Qaeda or al-Qaeda to and other armed groups operating in the areas they control. including participating in the national peace negotiations

but during the year after The Taliban has continued to attack Afghan forces and civilians.

Afghan Taliban fighters and villagers attend a gathering as they celebrate the peace deal signed between US and Taliban in Laghman Province, Alingar district on March 2, 2020. Getty Images

rise to power

The “Taliban” or “students” in Pashto began to emerge in the early 1990s in northern Pakistan after Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan. Most of the Pathan movement is believed to have started in religious schools. which was funded by Saudi Arabia who believe in the teachings of Sunni Islam to the extreme

The Taliban pledged to bring back peace and stability in the Pathan-inhabited region. which covers areas in both Pakistan and Afghanistan. and enforce Islamic law or sharia law when they came to power

After that, they began to expand rapidly from the southwestern region. In September 1995, the Taliban seized the province of Herat. which is adjacent to the Iranian border and a year later took over Kabul The Afghan capital succeeded in overthrowing President Burhanuddin Rabbani, one of the founders of the Mujahideen militia. which successfully repelled the Soviet forces.

By 1998, the Taliban had occupied nearly 90% of Afghanistan.

Taliban gumen control Kandahar-Herat Highway, near Kandahar city, 31 October 2001 Getty Images NATO estimates that the Taliban has 85,000 fighters stationed.

Afghans open their arms to the Taliban out of fed up with the internal conflict of the mujahideen. After successfully expelling the Soviets

Initially, they were popular because they helped eradicate corruption. Illegal control as well as making roads and areas safe for trading and doing business.

However, they began to enforce Sharia law strictly interpreting this Islamic law punishment. Whether it is the execution of those who are guilty of killing others and those who are unfaithful to their spouses. and amputation of the convicted of theft. In addition, men were forced to grow mustaches. And women are required to wear a full-coverage Islamic dress or burka.

The Taliban has also banned TV viewing, listening to music or movies, and against sending girls aged 10 and older to school, which they have been accused of violating human rights and destroying cultural structures. in many cases Including in 2001 they destroyed the famous Bamiyan Buddha despite international condemnation.

Pakistan has repeatedly denied being behind the Taliban’s network. But there is little doubt that many Afghans who joined the armed groups in the early days were educated at mission schools in Pakistan.

Pakistan is also one of three countries. including Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. which officially recognized the Taliban during their rule. Pakistan was also the last country to cut diplomatic ties with the Taliban.

On one occasion the Taliban threatened to attack Pakistan from a base they controlled in the northwest. One of the most well-known and condemned attacks on Pakistan was in October 2012 when Malala Yousafzai, a student at the time Was shot on the way home in Mingora.

Pakistani schoolgirl Malala Yousafzai was shot by Taliban gunmen in October 2012 Getty Images Malala Yousafzai

Military operations two years after the school massacre in the Pakistani city of Peshawar. As a result, the Taliban’s influence in Pakistan was greatly reduced. A 2013 US drone strike killed three key Taliban members in Pakistan, among them Pakistani Taliban leader Hakimulah Mesoud.

Bin Laden

The world turned its attention to the Taliban in Afghanistan following the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City, in which the Taliban are accused of sheltering key suspect Osama bin Laden.

On Oct. 7, 2001, the United States-led Joint Forces invasion of the Taliban in Afghanistan And by the first week of December, the Taliban’s network collapsed. But Taliban leaders at that time Mullah Mohammed Omar and bin Laden escaped capture.

But even with more and more foreign forces, the Taliban were able to regain their influence in Afghanistan. and causing more violence and instability in various parts of the country than it was in 2001.

In 2013 there were hopes for a peace deal to be negotiated when the Taliban announced it would establish a base in Qatar. and continued to cause violence

Until August 2015, the Taliban admitted to having concealed the death of Mohamed Omar for more than two years by Omar’s aide Mullah Mansour. become a leader instead

During that same time The Taliban regained control of Kunduz. which is an important strategic city This was the first successful occupation of the city since 2001.

Later in May, a US drone strike killed Sur by his aides. Haibatullah Akhunzada became the leader of the group instead.

Countdown to the withdrawal of troops

During the year after reaching a peace agreement with the United States The Taliban appears to have shifted from attacking cities and military bases to killing Afghan civilians instead. Be it journalists, judges, peace activists. women in power, etc.

Although Afghan officials are increasingly concerned about the vulnerability of a government without international support. President Joe Biden also announced that the US military will leave the country by 11 Sept.

After a violent war for two decades until the US Army about to withdraw The Taliban have begun occupying Afghanistan and there is a possibility of overthrowing the Afghan government again.

The Taliban’s forces are believed to be stronger than at any point since 2001, with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) estimated to have 85,000 fighters deployed. It has been recently estimated that they may control between one-third or one-fifth of the country’s area.

General Austin Miller, commander of the US-led Joint Forces in Afghanistan Warning in June

that there might be a civil war An analysis by US intelligence suggests the Afghan government could be overthrown within six months of the withdrawal of American forces.

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BBC Thai news published on the website News Sod is a collaboration of two news organizations.

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